A comparison of the great flood in the epic of gilgamesh and the bible

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A comparison of the great flood in the epic of gilgamesh and the bible

The sun, moon, and stars 2. The fish and the birds 3.


The fertile earth 6. The land animals and humans 7. Rest and satisfaction In light of these correspondences, Kline interprets days one and four as different perspectives on the same event, and likewise days two and five, and three and six.

A comparison of the great flood in the epic of gilgamesh and the bible

He concludes that while the creation account is historical, historicity and narrative sequence are not the same thing, so the account need not—indeed, should not—be read as chronological at all. And, of course, this nicely addresses Origen's observation that days one, two and three could not be literal days before the sun, moon and stars existed to mark them and it also obviates the anachronistic modern question, relevant to all six days if they are literal, of the time zone by which God measured his evenings and mornings Garden of Eden Standard Time?

Of course, Kline's interpretation can be disputed. For instance, Collinswhile recognizing the validity of the parallel structure in the days of creation and appreciating the implication that the precise lengths of time involved and the precise historical ordering of events was not the author's focus and is not a matter of deep biblical importance, nonetheless resists Kline's effort to condense the divine "workweek" into three days told from two different perspectives rather than six.

The fourth commandment in Exodus Furthermore, use of the Hebrew wayyiqtol verb form is prevalent in Genesis 1 and, since its ordinary narrative use is to indicate sequential events Collinsthe implication seems to be that some sort of sequence—whether logico-metaphysical, teleological, or chronological—is intrinsic to the author's portrayal.

Adopting this viewpoint, however, leaves Collins with the problem of interpreting how the fourth day of creation fits into this sequence. He resolves it by noting that when God says "Let there be yehi lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night.

This interpretation is further bolstered by the fact that verse 14 is focused on the function of these lights rather than their origin, lending credence to Collins' argument that Genesis 1: Understanding the text this way resolves Origen's problem grammatically.

Others have resolved it phenomenologically within a limited concordist framework by noting that the transparency of earth's atmosphere to light electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum is due to its gaseous composition, which changed substantially with the creation of the photosynthetic plant life that made animal respiration possible.

From the perspective of earth's surface, therefore, the fourth day may refer to the clearing of the atmosphere that rendered the sun, moon, and stars distinctly visible. Regardless of whether Origen's problem with the fourth day is resolved grammatically or phenomenologically or bothCollins' interpretation of the divine workweek as describing activities that are in some sense sequential and which provide an analogical rather than an identical basis for the human workweek is well grounded.

Collinscalls this the "analogical days" position, contrasting it with the day-age theory, the intermittent day theory, and the framework hypothesis.

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He finds precedent for it in the work of earlier conservative evangelical theologians, most notably the American theologian, William Sheddand the Dutch theologian, Herman Bavinck As Collins summarizes the analogical days view, it is the position that "the [creation] days are God's workdays, their length is neither specified nor important, and not everything in the account needs to be taken as historically sequential.

Beyond this, while there is certainly some sense of historical chronology inherent in Genesis 1: In this latter sense, the ordering of the creation days, to appropriate William Dembski's description, is more kairological than chronological, that is, it is a teleological purposive ordering in accordance with the fullness appropriateness of time in God's eternal plan for creation, rather than a temporal ordering in strict chronological sequence.

In the kairological unfolding of the creation week, we see the sequential implementation of divine purposes, and may understand them within the rubric of a limited concordism: The first two verses of Genesis—"In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth The first "day" of creation manifests God's division of light and darkness from the phenomenological standpoint of an observer on the surface of the earth: With the universe in place and the earth rendered stable, the second and third "days" portray God's intentional ordering of the Earth to provide a suitable home for sentient life in general and humanity in particular.

On the fourth "day", the earth is situated in a context revelatory of cosmic time, the heavenly lights become clearly visible from the surface of the earth, and God appoints the sun, moon, and stars to the task of marking the days and nights and seasons that will govern the ebb and flow of Earth's sentient life.

On the fifth "day", God creates the sentient inhabitants of the oceans and the skies. On the sixth "day", God creates the animals that inhabit the dry land, and most notably, he creates human beings in his image, as his crowning work, to exercise stewardship over creation Gen.

On the seventh "day", God rests from creating, taking satisfaction in the results of his labor. So we see that a more sensitive grammatical-historical reading of Scripture dispels the naive expectation that the "days" of the creation week are the literal hour days of our experience, and opens our minds to the real biblical possibility that the Ancient of Days is the Lord of deep time—and just how deep, creation must tell us, for Scripture does not.

The Origin of Humanity and the Historicity of the Fall But young-earth concerns have not yet been fully addressed, for quite apart from the age of the universe and the earth, we have yet to consider the extent to which biblical genealogies constrain the antiquity of humanity, we have yet to respond to objections based on the biblical effects of the fall, and we have yet to deal with young-earth claims about the nature and extent of the Noahic flood.

Let us begin with a consideration of the antiquity of humanity and the uniqueness of Adam and Eve. The Bible and the science of paleoanthropology both tell us that modern humanity did not always exist on the earth.

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The question that must concern us first is whether Scripture teaches that all of modern humanity descends from one aboriginal couple that it names "Adam" and "Eve". A straightforward reading of the Genesis 4 text requires there to be many other human beings around at the time of Cain and Abel.

We see this in that Cain, after murdering Abel, feared his life would be taken by another, and that he wandered off, found a wife, and built a city Gen. Young-earth creationists resolve this tension by appealing to Genesis 5: Of course, this interpretation requires that all of humanity have its genesis in rampant incest, a practice that God later explicitly condemns as a sin of the utmost seriousness Leviticus Regardless, then, whether we accept the disputed contention that modern genetics requires greater diversity among the ancestors of modern humanity than a single aboriginal couple would allow, the fact remains that it would be preferable morally and theologically to avoid this interpretation.

The key question, therefore, is whether Scripture requires the uniqueness of Adam and Eve. It is entirely consistent with the biblical account of human origins that, just as God created a multiplicity of creatures of various kinds in Genesis 1, so, when he created Adam and Eve as the first and representative i.Excerpt In Genesis –8 we read about some persons who may be a pre-Flood link between the Bible and the cultures of the ancient Near East.

They are the “sons of the gods.” The biblical reference to them should have some relationship with historical fact. If so, we should be able to lift.

A comparison of the great flood in the epic of gilgamesh and the bible

The Epic of Gilgamesh has been of interest to Christians ever since its discovery in the mid-nineteenth century in the ruins of the great library at Nineveh, with its account of a universal flood with significant parallels to the Flood of Noah's day.

1, 2 The rest of the Epic, which dates back to. The Flood in the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Flood of Genesis The Biblical book, Genesis, of the Old Testament contains an account of an historic Flood which has never been equaled in intensity. Tablet 11of the Sumero-Babylonian version of the epic of Gilgamesh also records a Flood quite expansive and quite devastating.

Derivation of the Adam & Eve story from the Epic of Gilgamesh. Peter Myers. Date July 9, ; update March 17, My comments are shown {thus}; write to me at.

'Antediluvian civilizations'' are civilizations believed to have existed before the Great flood of Noah. If the fossil record is indeed the result of the Biblical flood as described in the Bible, then it is somewhat expected for evidence of antediluvian (pre-flood) civilizations to exist.

It is assumed by many that humans reached advanced stages of technological development before the flood. Flood Stories in Epic of Gilgamesh and the Genesis Flood of the Christian Bible - Comparison of the Flood Stories in Gilgamesh and the Bible The two stories closely parallel each other, though Gilgamesh was written down before BCE and the version in Genesis was compiled ca.


Genesis and Ancient Near Eastern Stories of Creation and Flood: An Introduction Part I