Energy, mineral and water resources, geologic hazards, pollution of natural waters, and earthquake prediction are just a few of the pressing societal concerns that are addressed by geoscientists. The Geological Sciences program has two major parts: Field, laboratory, and computer skills are essential to the study of the Geological Sciences.
Geodesy and Geophysics joined together in the IUGG investigate the figure of the Earthits reaction to forces and its potential fields magnetic and gravity field.
Geophysicists explore also the Earth's core and mantle and the natural depositswhile geodesists study the movement of stars and satellites. Soil science covers the outermost layer of the Earth's crust that is subject to soil formation processes or pedosphere.
Major subdisciplines include edaphology and pedology. Oceanography and Hydrology incl. Limnology describe the marine and freshwater domains of the watery parts of the Earth or hydrosphere.
Major subdisciplines include hydrogeology and physicalchemicaland biological oceanography. Within the scientific union IUGG the disciplines are joined with Geophysicsexcept the chemical ones. Major subdisciplines are MeteorologyClimatology and Aeronomy.
Due to the numerous interactions between the spheresmany modern fields take an interdisciplinary approach and thus do not sit comfortably in this scheme. Even the above specialisms do not operate in isolation.
|UB Undergraduate Catalog Geological Sciences : Overview||History of the Earth and Geologic time scale The geologic time scale encompasses the history of the Earth. At the young end of the scale, it is bracketed by the present day in the Holocene epoch.|
For example, to understand the circulation of the oceans, the interactions between ocean, atmosphere and Earth rotation must be considered. Interdisciplinary fields Other types of research are even more interpast states of the ocean, atmosphere or climate. Meteorology describes, explains and predicts the weather based on the interaction of principally the ocean and atmosphere.
Climatology describes and explains the climate in terms of the interaction of the litho- pedo- hydro- atmo- cryo- and bio- spheres. Atmospheric chemistry describes, explains and predicts the chemical composition of the atmosphere in principally terms of the interactions of the ocean, atmosphere, biosphere and human influence.
Hydrology considers the flow of water through the Earth, from the transition of water in the form of precipitation in the atmosphere, to rivers, and groundwater in aquifers.
Earth system science Many scientists are now starting to use an approach known as Earth system science which treats the entire Earth as a system in its own right, which evolves as a result of positive and negative feedback between constituent systems. The systems approachenabled by the combined use of computer models as hypotheses tested by global satellite and ship-board data, is increasingly giving scientists the ability to explain the past and possible future behaviour of the Earth system.
Complex computer models which seek to model several different parts of the Earth system and the interactions between them are known as Earth system models. Many are based on Global climate models and include sub models for the ocean, atmosphere, biosphere and other parts of the earth system. These interactions are of particular importance when trying to understand changes over decade to centuries and longer periods.
Gaia theories explain the behaviour of the Earth system in terms of the influence of the biosphere. Methodology Like all other scientists, earth scientists apply the scientific method: In earth science, data usually plays a critical role in testing and formulating hypotheses.
Partial list of the major Earth Science topics Atmosphere.This introductory course provides an overview of the main concepts of groundwater occurrence and flow. Introduction to hydrogeology kB pdf Provides participants with a grounding in the principles of hydrogeology and the skills to make sound hydrogeological decisions including when to call in a specialist hydrogeologist.
R. Fluegeman, Chairperson.
Geoscientists study the earth with primary attention to its history, materials, and structure, and to the active processes that continue to change the landscape.
Introduction to Hydrogeology (). A quantitative overview of the hydrologic cycle including both surface and groundwater hydrology. Topics to include surface water, aquifer properties, groundwater, modeling, human use and abuse of water resources, contamination, and extraction.
US students prepared for careers in global workplace Students choose education/careers in international geoscience Hydrogeology Land-slides Common to all research EDU-CATION Workshops: Magma Volume Estimates at Santiaguito and Pacaya Volcanoes, Guatemala, Using Digital Elevation Models,” Bulletin of Volcanology.
Gross, EL, JS Gierke. The BA is geared to those students interested in using geological knowledge in an allied career such as environmental law or science journalism, while the BS is geared toward students interested in careers as environmental geoscientists and hydrogeologists, the mining and fossil fuel industries, or an advanced degrees geology or geophysics.
A main focus of the course will be examining the methods for discovering information about the solar system involving the interdisciplinary application of pertinent basic scientific concepts of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, meteorology and cosmology.