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How to Write a Summary of an Article? Just War Theory War is said to occur when one state declares hostility against another by which it places the people and resources under its authority to enmity against their adversaries as well as their resources Gardam J, According to broadminded ed war historian and theorist Jeffrey Rodgers Hummel, there is an implication of the above definition.
Hummel, just war would comprise that the war should have a just beginning. That is, it must be declared in reaction to violent behavior; the response has to be reasonable and according to the level of aggression, it has to be begun by an appropriate authority in opposition to appropriate enemy; it has to be conducted in proper manner that is justly…that is no harming of innocent people knowingly or intentionally Gardam J, The war must have a just origin The just war theory asserts that war should originate only if there is violation of rights and only in self-defense.
Nevertheless, a difficulty arises at once. The war must be a reasonable response As per the theory, it is grimacing for a provoker to be shot whether he acted on purpose or accidentally.
While exercising self-defense the level of force utilized has to be proportional to the force used by the aggressor, while the aim of the responsive force should be articulated on the tenets of protection or restitution. Thus, a war with a just origin should have first exhausted all lesser force employment that could have consummated the desired objectives.
It becomes crucial to elucidate one idea that the war should be left with the people with, that the state has consigned their rights of defense with. Secondly, does aggression directed towards those consigned with the right of defense bind all others under declaration of war?
If so, the contract appears to be calculated to enhance the level of violence of any differences as opposed to providing protection or restitution.
The war has to be declared by a proper authority and against a proper enemy. Under this theory, the proper authority to exercise a right of self-defense against an aggressor is an agent or individual upon whose rights have been violated.
Thus, under this heading a state is interpreted to be a proper authority. Here the assumption is that the war is declared against a state that is proper enemy.
Just war should have a just ending On the ordinary observation, a just war precisely since, it is not a campaign should finish with the reinstatement of the status quo ante.
The model case is a war of hostility, which ends justly when the provoker has been conquered, his attack repulsed, the old boundaries reinstated. Conceivably this is not quite enough for a just ending: In considering the atomic bombing of Japan, Was the bombing just?
The use of atomic bombs was not meant to be confined to military targets, as these are obviously weapons mass destruction and could not fail to terrorize the civilians.
From point of view of justice, discarding the rule that excludes civilians from deliberate attack represented a grave injustice from which the world requires to recover. If the aim was to end the war this could have been achieved without dropping those bombs on civilians Gardam J, This utterance came from one of the prominent and respected advocates of international peace and justice.
How true was his assertion about just war in Afghanistan Roberts A, ? First, on the ground that the principles were broken as of the start of the war and secondly, on the dismissal of alternative action that could have solved the impasse through the United Nations.
On the other hand, prior knowledge of humanitarian crisis that could be occasioned by bombing serves to negate it from being construed as just war. First, the war did not meet the criteria of discrimination not to harm civilians. Secondly, on the proportionality of the force force should not be greater than the provoking causethe force employed was greater compared to that of the aggressor Roberts A, The war in Afghanistan largely did not meet the criterion of necessity that calls upon force not to be applied if there are other non-violent means available.
Before the onset of the bombing, Taliban Ambassador to Pakistan had proposed that they were ready to try Osama bin Laden if America provided evidence connecting him to the attacks in the New York and Washington. Going by the words of this ambassador, it is clear that this war could have been avoided if US offered the evidence they were demanding in order to prosecute the culprit Mintz A, In addition, the ambassador had indicated that under Islamic law legal proceedings could begin.
Thus, infact trial could begin pertaining to the raised allegations followed by evidence being provided in court. However, what happened is that Washington refused to offer evidence, declared its demands were not subject to negotiation and started bombardment of Afghanistan Mintz A, Vietnam War first assumed the aspect of political dimension with many at last being pressed towards moral arguments.
Of course, the war was seen to be completely irresponsible, and one that could not be won. Its costs, even if the Americans were egoistic, were above the normal. The war was fought unjustly since it involved a lot of brutality by the Americans, a factor that was seen by many as the one that led to the defeat.
Vietnam War served to educate states that there was a need for state to fight justly and to crown it all, justice has become military necessity.Essay in moral restitution right risk theory dowry prohibition act essay expository essay introduction powerpoint presentations materials in a research paper harlow evaluation essay ben carson research paper racial profiling in policing essay.
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THOMSON AND THE TROLLEY PROBLEM Postow, B. C.
Footnotes 1 This essay appears in Judith Jarvis Thomson, Rights, Restitution, and Risk: Essays in Moral Theory, edited by William Parent (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ), pp.
94– It is reprinted from The Yale Law Journal 94 (), where it appeared originally.