The projections are obtained by decomposing the corresponding matrix. Then a residual is calculated and the calculation of the next component is based on this residual. The obtained results for equations need to be evaluated by using the test set. The predicted values are calculated using test values from the optical measurement set and parameters obtained from the training phase.
Map showing the terminology for each country's legislature. Names for national legislatures include " parliament ", " congress ", " diet ", and " assembly ", depending on country. Internal organization[ edit ] Each chamber of the legislature consists of a number Pest analysis of hong kong legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation.
There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; this is called a quorum. Some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are usually delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber s.
The members of a legislature usually represent different political parties ; the members from each party generally meet as a caucus to organize their internal affairs. Power[ edit ] Legislatures vary widely in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciariesmilitariesand executives.
Inpolitical scientists M.
Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures. Such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of governmentthe executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive.
A legislature usually contains a fixed number of legislators; because legislatures usually meet in a specific room filled with seats for the legislators, this is often described as the number of "seats" it contains. For example, a legislature that has "seats" has members.
By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can also be described as a "seat", as, for, example, in the phrases " safe seat " and " marginal seat ".
The Congress of the Republic of Peruthe country's national legislature, meets in the Legislative Palace in A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assembliescalled by various names including legislative chambersdebate chambersand houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers.
A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameralone divided into two chambers is bicameraland one divided into three chambers is tricameral. The British House of Commonsits lower house In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is usually considered the upper housewhile the other is considered the lower house.
The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, and tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house.
In some systems, particularly parliamentary systemsthe upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others, particularly presidential systemsthe upper house has equal or even greater power.
The German Bundestagits theoretical lower house In federationsthe upper house typically represents the federation's component states.
This is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The Australian Senateits upper house Tricameral legislatures are rare; the Massachusetts Governor's Council still exists, but the most recent national example existed in the waning years of White-minority rule in South Africa.
Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were previously used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary widely in their size.
Among national legislaturesChina's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7.
Neither legislature is democratically elected, with the National People's Congress being indirectly electedas well as this the National People's Congress has little independent power[ citation needed ].
Legislature size is a trade off between efficiency and representation; the smaller the legislature, the more efficiently it can operate, but the larger the legislature, the better it can represent the political diversity of its constituents.
Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population ; that is, the size of the lower house tends to increase along with population, but much more slowly.Windavar is a community of amazing people with innovative mind working in an environment nourished by trust, integrity and teamwork offering quality products and services to all regardless of their race, ethnic background and geographical location.
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