Programming master thesis abstract

However, such code often takes on a life of its own, despite casual structure and poor or non-existent documentation.

Programming master thesis abstract

Features[ edit ] Object-oriented programming uses objects, but not all of the associated techniques and structures are supported directly in languages that claim to support OOP.

The features listed below are, however, common among languages considered strongly class- and object-oriented or multi-paradigm with OOP supportwith notable exceptions mentioned.

Comparison of programming languages object-oriented programming and List of object-oriented programming terms Shared with non-OOP predecessor languages[ edit ] Variables that can store information formatted in a small number of built-in data types like integers and alphanumeric characters.

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This may include data structures like stringslistsand hash tables that are either built-in or result from combining variables using memory pointers Procedures — also known as functions, methods, routines, or subroutines — that take input, generate output, and manipulate data.

Modern languages include structured programming constructs like loops and conditionals. Modular programming support provides the ability to group procedures into files and modules for organizational purposes.

Modules are namespaced so identifiers in one module will not be accidentally confused with a procedure or variable sharing the same name in another file or module. Objects and classes[ edit ] Languages that support object-oriented programming typically use inheritance for code reuse and extensibility in the form of either classes or prototypes.

Those that use classes support two main concepts: Classes — the definitions for the data format and available procedures for a given type or class of object; may also contain data and procedures known as class methods themselves, i.

For example, a graphics program may have objects such as "circle", "square", "menu". An online shopping system might have objects such as "shopping cart", "customer", and "product". Object-oriented programming is more than just classes and objects; it's a whole programming paradigm based around objects data structures that contain data fields and methods.

It is essential to understand this; using classes to organize a bunch of unrelated methods together is not object orientation. Junade Ali, Mastering PHP Design Patterns [8] Each object is said to be an instance of a particular class for example, an object with its name field set to "Mary" might be an instance of class Employee.

Procedures in object-oriented programming are known as methods ; variables are also known as fieldsmembers, attributes, or properties. This leads to the following terms: Class variables — belong to the class as a whole; there is only one copy of each one Instance variables or attributes — data that belongs to individual objects; every object has its own copy of each one Member variables — refers to both the class and instance variables that are defined by a particular class Class methods — belong to the class as a whole and have access only to class variables and inputs from the procedure call Instance methods — belong to individual objects, and have access to instance variables for the specific object they are called on, inputs, and class variables Objects are accessed somewhat like variables with complex internal structure, and in many languages are effectively pointersserving as actual references to a single instance of said object in memory within a heap or stack.

They provide a layer of abstraction which can be used to separate internal from external code. External code can use an object by calling a specific instance method with a certain set of input parameters, read an instance variable, or write to an instance variable.

Objects are created by calling a special type of method in the class known as a constructor. A program may create many instances of the same class as it runs, which operate independently.

programming master thesis abstract

This is an easy way for the same procedures to be used on different sets of data. Object-oriented programming that uses classes is sometimes called class-based programmingwhile prototype-based programming does not typically use classes.

As a result, a significantly different yet analogous terminology is used to define the concepts of object and instance.

Oct 19,  · An abstract is a brief yet thorough summary of your research. Its purpose is to provide readers with a clear overview of what you have investigated and your corresponding conclusions/5(). Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of. This post is about how to use nominalisations in hypnotic language to be more effective in hypnotic language. So as a nice easy suggestion, for now forget about the names and labels and shift your concentration to the functional use.

In some languages classes and objects can be composed using other concepts like traits and mixins. Class-based vs prototype-based[ edit ] In class-based languages the classes are defined beforehand and the objects are instantiated based on the classes.

If two objects apple and orange are instantiated from the class Fruit, they are inherently fruits and it is guaranteed that you may handle them in the same way; e. In prototype-based languages the objects are the primary entities.

No classes even exist. The prototype of an object is just another object to which the object is linked.

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Every object has one prototype link and only one. New objects can be created based on already existing objects chosen as their prototype. You may call two different objects apple and orange a fruit, if the object fruit exists, and both apple and orange have fruit as their prototype.

The idea of the fruit class doesn't exist explicitly, but as the equivalence class of the objects sharing the same prototype. The attributes and methods of the prototype are delegated to all the objects of the equivalence class defined by this prototype.

The attributes and methods owned individually by the object may not be shared by other objects of the same equivalence class; e. Only single inheritance can be implemented through the prototype. This feature is known as dynamic dispatchand distinguishes an object from an abstract data type or modulewhich has a fixed static implementation of the operations for all instances.

If the call variability relies on more than the single type of the object on which it is called i. A method call is also known as message passing.

It is conceptualized as a message the name of the method and its input parameters being passed to the object for dispatch.

COMPUTING & SOFTWARE SYSTEMS

Encapsulation[ edit ] Encapsulation is an object-oriented programming concept that binds together the data and functions that manipulate the data, and that keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse.

Data encapsulation led to the important OOP concept of data hiding. If a class does not allow calling code to access internal object data and permits access through methods only, this is a strong form of abstraction or information hiding known as encapsulation.In this paper, we present Google, a prototype of a large-scale search engine which makes heavy use of the structure present in hypertext.

Google is designed to crawl and index the Web efficiently and produce much more satisfying search results than existing systems.

programming master thesis abstract

The prototype with a full text. In this master's thesis, we review literature on plausible alternatives to using C/C++ for safety-critical real-time systems and a number of requirements on programming languages are specified.

Also, Java and Ada are compared to C/C++. Web Programming Masters Degree Programs with Course Information. Master's degree programs in web programming are rare, but a Master of Science in Computer Science is a similar alternative.

C++ is the most programming language which I find interest to learn and adjust to a wide range of knowledge within basic of programming and create useful outcome.

A Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation that defines an abstract machine, which manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. Despite the model's simplicity, given any computer algorithm, a Turing machine capable of simulating that algorithm's logic can be constructed..

The machine operates on an infinite memory tape divided into discrete cells. Master of Science in Computer Science. The Master of Science (MS) in Computer Science program is intended for computer professionals and for people who wish to .

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