Administered by the League of Nations Annexed or transferred to neighboring countries by the treaty, or later via plebiscite and League of Nation action Weimar Germany The Treaty of Versailles was neither lenient enough to appease Germanynor harsh enough to prevent it from becoming the dominant continental power again. The treaty provided for harsh monetary reparationsseparated millions of ethnic Germans into neighboring countries, territorial dismembermentand caused mass ethnic resettlement. In an effort to pay war reparations to Britain and France, the Weimar Republic printed trillions of marks, causing extremely high inflation of the German currency see Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic. The treaty created bitter resentment towards the victors of World War I, who had promised the people of Germany that U.
Unrestrained nationalism 1 Organic Weakness - Unprecedented Imperialism As we have already learned, many historians refer to the 19th Century as the golden age of European imperialism - an age during which Europeans owned or controlled most of Africa and Asia and all or part of every other continent.
As the map below indicates - European colonization in - the quest for empire drove the foreign policies of most European nations during the 19th Century. This scramble for empire created competition among various imperial empires.
Britain was dominant in India - which becomes the centerpiece of its empire. China was controlled by several powers that through treaties had created spheres of influence Byany territorial gain by one power meant the loss of territory by another.
Britain was the strongest of all the empires - British colonial territory was over times the size of its own territory at home, thus giving rise to the phrase "the sun never sets on the British empire.
This animated map of the "Political Borders of Europe, " at http: The bottom line is that during the 19th Century, some empires and sovereign nations grew and increased their geopolitical strength at the expense of others.
This shift in the balance of power will fester as those nations that lost their territory and sovereignty try to regain it, while the larger powers continue their quest for even more territory.
To understand this Balance of Power in the important regions, go to http: The rapidly expanding empires seemed to have no understanding about the bitterness that reckless imperialism brought between competing empires, nor did they seem to understand how imperialism influenced the politics of previously-sovereign nations that came under colonial control.
Consequently, unprecedented imperialism highlighted a second organic weakness - historical and contemporary grievances among the European powers. Conclusions about Organic Weakness 2 - how historical and contemporary grievances led to war: These grievances were all about expansion and contraction of empires.
As one empire expanded, another contracted - leaving those nations, ethnic groups, regions with bitter attitudes about colonization as well as hopes for regaining political sovereignty. Consequently, these historical and contemporary grievances became clearly expressed through the third organic weakness - the series of shifting and entangling alliances that arose toward the end of the 19th Century.
Alliances, then, are agreements of mutual advantage made between nations with common enemies; they are not treaties of friendship or support for common beliefs. Following are a few of these alliances from this period: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia promised to consult on matters of mutual interest and to maintain neutrality in case one should be attacked by another power.
Broadened in - pledged that if any one should "find itself at war" with a fourth power, the others would remain neutral. Germany and Austria-Hungary pledged support should Russia attack either country.
Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. Italy needed an effective ally against France, so looked to its enemies.
Italy left the Alliance in Reinsurance Treaty of Germany and Russia agreed to maintain benevolent neutrality if either entered war.
Franco-Russian Alliance of France and Russia agreed that if any member of the Triple Alliance mobilized, the two nations would mobilize and should war ensue, under certain conditions, they would fight side by side.
Entente Cordiale of Britain and France agreed to settle all outstanding colonial disputes - especially in Morocco and Egypt.
Anglo-Russian Accord of Britain and Russia agreed to settle all outstanding colonial disputes - especially in Persian, Tibet, and Afghanistan.
And if we look at these alliances, it is clear that Britain avoided them prior to the turn of the 20th Century.There were four main causes of World War I: militarism, alliances, imperialism and nationalism.
The first world war was a direct result of these four main causes, but it was triggered by the assassination of the Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife. The assassination took place on June Unit Unresolved Global Conflict () Unit Unresolved Global Conflict () Causes and Effects of World War 1 What were the causes of World War 1?
What were the social, political, and economic effects of World War 1? Resource: Graphic Organizer: Causes and Effects of World War 1.
What is important to look at is the causes of conflict, the issues of state fragility, injustice and inequality impact EU and Global security, and link strongly with issues like terrorism (giving rise to it not only in conflict areas, but in our society).
Ten historians from 10 countries give a brief history of the first world war through a global lens. Using original news reports, interactive maps and rarely-seen footage, including extraordinary.
'A war to end all wars' The First World War was the first truly global conflict – the battle raged not just in the trenches of the Western Front but . The causes, effects and importance of the World War I Underlying Causes of the First World War: Firstly, in the Vienna Congress From the historical point of view the World War I was of utmostimportance in the history of the World.
First, the War brought a total change in the map of Europe. The German, Russian, Turkish and Austrian.